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The Rise and Fall of Hosni Mubarak; How a 30 Year Rule came to an end

Hosni Mubarak
Image Credit :- The New York Times

On 25 February 2020, former Egyptian President and dictator Hosni Mubarak took his last breath at the age of 91. Mubarak buried in Cairo with full military honour.

Today let’s discuss about the Rise and Fall of Hosni Mubarak. How a rule of 30 year come to an end.

Early Life

Although there were not much detail available about Mubarak early Life. Mubarak likes to keep his personal life private.

Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak born in 4 May 1928, Kafr Al Musaylhah in Egypt. He left his military academy in 1949 and joined Air Force Academy and commissioned as Pilot Officer in 1950. Later he served in Air Force Academy as a instructor in Egypt.

From 1959 to 1961 Mubarak went to Soviet Union and attend Soviet pilot training school in Moscow. In Soviet Union he took training to fly jet bombers.
Later on 1964 he gained a place as a instructor, at the Frunze Military Academy in Moscow.

On his return to Egypt, he served as a wing commander, then as a base commander.

On 1972 Mubarak become the Commander in Chief of the Air Force and also appointed as the Deputy Defense Minister of Egypt.

On 6 October 1973, at the breakout of the Yom Kippur War (October War or Ramadan War), the Egyptian Air Force launched a surprise attack under his guidance on Israeli soldiers on the east bank of the Suez Canal. Egyptian pilots hit 90% of their targets, make Hosni Mubarak as the national hero. Although Israel defeated Egypt.

The then President of Egypt Anwar Sadat promoted Mubarak to the rank of Air Chief Marshall.

Political Carrier

Hosni Mubarak started his political career in 1975 after President Anwar Sadat appointment him as a Vice President of Egypt.

President Anwar Sadat sent Mubarak numerous time on foreign meetings. Sadat also include Mubarak in meetings related to various sensitive issue.

In this time period Sadat continuously making an effort to bring back Sinai Peninsula to Egypt from Israel (Israel captured Sinai Peninsula during 6 Day war in 1967), finally Sadat was successful in their efforts and signed a peace treaty with Israel (Camp David Accords).
Arab world was unhappy with Sadat decision and they suspends the membership of Egypt from Arab League and also from Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC).

There were many Fundamentalism in Egypt who were totally against Camp David Accords, resulted President Sadat assassinated by soldiers led by Lieutenant Khalid Islambouli in 1981.
After the death of President Sadat, Mubarak became the 4th President of Egypt in 1981.

President Hosni Mubarak makes meeting with the king of Saudi Arabia in 1982 and his efforts gets success in 1989 when Egypt again become the member of Arab League.

Mubarak had been re-elected four times during his 24-year rule by a referendum, although we cannot deny the fact that there was no opposition exist in Egypt. People can choose only Hosni Mubarak. Mubarak won the 1999 referendum with almost 94% of the vote, though turnout was probably around 10%.

During 1993 Egypt seen a unrest against Mubarak. Although the protest was brutally suppressed by army. According to official sources 1106 person were killed in the protest, actual number may vary.

In 2005, the first allegedly contested presidential election happen in Egypt’s history. Mubarak again chooses for the 5th consecutive term.

Many opposition leaders claim the election wasn’t fair.

Fall of Hosni Mubarak.

In December 2010, a incident happen in Tunisia. In Tunisia a fruit seller set himself on fire against autocratic rule. This spark led a great movement in Arab world against the dictator rule.

In 2011 protest was started against Mubarak in Egypt too. People’s demanding immediate removal of President Mubarak.

On 1 February, Mubarak announced he would not contest the presidential election due in September. But this statement by Mubarak make the protesters happy as they want to remove Mubarak immediately.

On 11 February, Vice President Omar Suleiman announced that President Mubarak had resigned.

Criminal Cases

On 24 May 2011, Trial started on Mubarak for killing of peaceful protesters. Corruption cases was also filed against Hosni Mubarak.

In February 2011, ABC News reported that experts believed the personal wealth of Mubarak and his family was between US$40 billion and US$70 billion.

On 2 March 2017, the Court of Cassation acquitted Mubarak and released him on 24 March 2017.

Aditya Raj
Writer & Co-founder of InfotOnline.

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